International Symposium on GPS

Application to Earth Sciences and Interaction with Other Space Geodetic Techniques

[GPS99 in Tsukuba]

October 18 -- 22, 1999

Tsukuba International Convention Center,
Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan

In part, joint with
The Third International Meeting of The Asia-Pacific Space Geodynamics Program


Deadline for abstracts: May 31, 1999
Deadline for early registration: June 30, 1999

GPS99 Homepage URL:

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Scientific Program for GPS99

Session 1: Permanent GPS arrays, current and future
Conveners: Yehuda Bock (UCSD;, and Yuki Hatanaka (GSI;
Recent developments in regional permanent GPS arrays allow accurate, rapid monitoring of crustal deformation with high temporal and spatial resolution, and open the door to a wide variety of other applications, for example, in Meteorology, Ionospheric Science, and Engineering. Outstanding problems in achieving the inherent sub-mm positioning resolution of GPS include local-scale effects such as monument instability, antenna phase center modeling, signal multipath and scattering, and network-scale effects such as tropospheric and ionospheric refraction and propagation of terrestrial reference frame errors. Improvements are being made in GPS instrumentation and other site hardware (e.g., antenna domes, antenna adapters), site calibration, monumentation, data communications, and GPS analysis and modeling algorithms to mitigate these effects. We welcome contributions that cover current and future developments in regional permanent GPS arrays and the prospects for further improvements in the accuracy, reliability, and timeliness of network products.

Session 2: GPS meteorology: atmospheric sensing with ground and space-based GPS receivers
Conveners: Bill Kuo (UCAR;, Mike Bevis (Hawaii Univ.;, Yoaz Bar-Sever (JPL;, Randolph Ware (UCAR;, Nobutaka Mannoji (JMA;, and Toshitaka Tsuda (Kyoto Univ.;
Phase and amplitude variations induced in GPS signals by the lower and upper atmosphere can be observed from the ground and from space. Observed from the ground, GPS phase delays can be used to estimate integrated values of tropospheric moisture along each of the dozen or so ray paths to GPS satellites in view. Observed from space, GPS phase delays can be converted into refractivity profiles. Ground and space-based GPS data have great potential for mesoscale modeling and prediction. Other applications include correction of atmospheric effects in GPS geodesy, calibration of satellite radiometry, correction of synthetic aperture radar images for crustal deformation applications, climatology, hydrology, coastal meteorology, detection of scintillation associated with atmospheric turbulence in the lower troposphere. We welcome presentations on these and related topics.

Session 3: A new view of the tectonic deformations in the Pacific and Asia using space geodetic techniques (joint with APSG)
Conveners: Shui-Beih Yu (Academia Sinica;, Jeff Freymueller (Alaska Univ.;, Takao Tabei (Kochi Univ.;, and Minoru Kasahara (Hokkaido Univ.;
The Asia-Pacific region includes many active plate boundaries, including the broad India-Eurasia plate collision zone and several continental margins - island arc systems. These plate-boundary deformation zones are the focus for geodetic studies because large deformation signals are expected over a range of spatial and temporal scales. Furthermore, hazards from geophysical events affect large numbers of people and infrastructures in the region. This session will focus on new insights into the kinematics of the deformation zones in the Asia-Pacific region derived from recent space geodetic measurements. Topics of particular interest include: (1) plate coupling and interaction at plate boundaries, (2) new definitions of tectonic blocks in the region, (3) processes of strain accumulation and release in the earthquake cycle, (4) monitoring of volcanic activities, and (5) motions along major active faults.

Session 4: Determination and interpretation of global and regional plate motions deduced from space geodetic techniques
Conveners: Kristine Larson (Univ. Colorado,, and Kosuke Heki (NAO,
For this session we seek contributions concerned with the determination of global plate motion using space geodetic techniques such as GPS, VLBI, SLR, DORIS. Scientific discussions may focus on such topics as comparisons with time-averaged plate motion models and between different techniques, significance of vertical signals in global solutions, and large-scale internal deformation of tectonic plates. We also welcome contributions on the definition of new tectonic blocks and regional-scale crustal deformation studies in non-Asia-Pacific regions.

Session 5: Combination of space geodetic techniques for global dynamics and reference frames
Conveners: Thomas Herring (MIT,, Zuheir Altamimi (IGN,"), Shigeru Matsuzaka (GSI,, and Yukio Takahashi (CRL, ... Convener changed
The combination of measurements from multiple geodetic systems allows the development of a unified terrestrial reference frame to support tectonic, geodynamics, and Earth rotation studies. Comparison of results from different techniques permits the assessment of systematic errors in each system, and the analysis of possible common non-modeled signals. Papers are sought that address the combination of data and results from VLBI, SLR, GPS, GLONASS, DORIS, and PRARE both in the form of parametric combinations and analyses at the observable level.

Session 6: Space and terrestrial techniques for advanced crustal deformation research
Conveners: Will Prescott (USGS;, Frank Webb (JPL;, Seiichi Shimada (NIED;, and Takeshi Matsushima (Kyushu Univ.;
This session will focus on the results of crustal deformation observations by GPS, InSAR and other terrestrial techniques such as trilateration, leveling, tiltmeter, strainmeter, creepmeter, water level, extensometer measurements, and so on. Such high precision space techniques, combined with terrestrial techniques, are required for monitoring earthquakes, volcanoes, post-glacial rebound, and other agents of change that produce crustal deformation. Presentations of new findings of crustal deformation observations are especially welcome.

Session 7: Application of GPS for monitoring Earth's environmental and global sealevel change
Conveners: Erik R. Ivins (JPL;, and Yoshiaki Tamura (NAO; ... Convener changed
The Earth's environment is affected by human activities on a global scale. Monitoring the environmental changes in sealevel, ground water, ice-sheet volume, and Earth rotation are required across a variety of spatial and temporal scales. This session highlights the application of GPS to monitoring global environmental changes. Topics on monitoring sealevel, vertical datum realization, observations in Antarctica, etc., are welcome.

Session 8: Application of GPS for ionospheric research and impact of solar maximum for GPS measurements
Conveners: Richard Langley (Univ. New Brunswick;, and Akinori Saito (Kyoto Univ.;
This session will deal with the results of ionospheric research using the GPS/GLONASS systems, and the ionospheric effects on these positioning systems, especially during the upcoming solar maximum. Topics of the session include: (1) TEC variations associated with geophysical activities, such as geomagnetic storms and solar events, (2) effects of ionospheric irregularities on the GPS systems and techniques to mitigate these effects, (3) ionospheric tomography, including occultation observations, (4) comparison of GPS observations with ionospheric models or other observations using radar and optical measurements.

Session 9: Modeling of the crustal process based on GPS measurements
Conveners: Paul Segall (Stanford Univ.;, Manabu Hashimoto (Kyoto Univ.;, and Takeshi Sagiya (GSI;
The recent deployment of dense arrays of continuous GPS stations gives new insights into the spatio-temporal variations in crustal deformation and plate motion, and may result in a paradigm shift in our understanding of the physical processes in the Earth. In addition, computational methods and tools are also rapidly developing, which may solve some of the mysteries in Earth science, such as seismic coupling, seismic cycle, etc. This session welcomes papers related to the modeling of crustal deformation and plate motion, including data assimilation techniques, and numerical modeling.

Session 10: Theory and Methodology of GPS and other space techniques
Conveners: Peter Teunissen (Delft Univ. Tech.;, and Peiliang Xu (Kyoto Univ.;
The aim of this session is to exchange ideas on theoretical and methodological aspects of the GPS and other space techniques (GLONASS, GNSS, and SAR) for precise positioning. Papers on methods for improved functional and/or stochastic modeling, including those of estimation and validation are especially welcome. This includes topics such as data quality assessment theory and stochasticity, bias reduction techniques (atmosphere, multipath, etc.), integer ambiguity resolution (GPS/GLONASS), phase unwrapping (SAR), statistical testing and quality control.

Session 11: Kinematic application of GPS technology to Earth sciences
Conveners: Oscar Colombo (NASA/GSFC;, and Tetsuichiro Yabuki (STA;
Topics appropriate to this session are those applications of kinematic GPS (both real-time and post-mission) that may enable a more precise and effective use of scientific remote-sensing from moving platforms, such as laser and radar airborne terrain-mapping (including SAR and InSAR), photogrammetry, use of buoys for tidal and oceanographic mapping, hydrographic charting with airborne laser depth-sounders, and multi- beam and interferometric sonar.

Session 12: Issues of data quality management and hardware/software technological problems in GPS
Conveners: James L. Davis (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics;, Peng Fang (UCSD;, and Akio Yasuda (Tokyo Univ. Mercantile Marine;
This session intends to address any technical issues that may bring about improvement in achieving the scientific objective of extracting the highest quality through reliable and efficient data collection procedures and data processing schemes. Contributors are encouraged to present innovative methods that overcome hardware or software limitations. New designs in quality control and data management are also welcome.

Session 13: GPS for gravity field and geoid determination
Conveners: Rene Forsberg (KMS;, and Yoichi Fukuda (Kyoto Univ.,
This session seeks to address the impact of kinematic GPS in gravity field determination through airborne and shipborne gravity measurements, satellite GPS for gravity field recovery, and the use of GPS for geoid and height determination on both regional and continental scales.

Session 14: Innovative developments in GPS geodesy in support of the Earth sciences
Conveners: Chris Rizos (Univ. New South Wales;, and Shigeru Nakao (Tokyo Univ.;
Contributions are welcome that describe work that highlights new GPS methodologies. In the future the standard GPS geodesy techniques may have to be complemented with new, innovative procedures that are more flexible, more efficient and more cost effective in addressing multiple applications. Topics for this session include the feasibility of using single-frequency GPS instrumentation, mixing dual- and single-frequency GPS receivers, combined GPS and GLONASS results, the integration of GPS with other geodetic and geophysical instrumentation, high-rate GPS used in seismometer mode, and real-time solutions. The contributions may deal with engineering and implementation issues, as well as data analysis techniques and current results.

Special Session: Asia Pacific Space Geodynamics Program
Conveners: Ye Shu-Hua (SHAO;, John Manning (AUSLIG;, and Makoto Murakami (GSI;
The APSG program was organized to stimulate international collaboration in the research fields of crustal deformation and sealevel change monitoring, mitigation of natural disasters, and the dynamics of the Earth. APSG has three major scientific goals to achieve: (1) Geodynamics and Natural Hazards of the Indo-Eurasian Collision, (2) Geodynamics and Natural Hazards of the Western Pacific Region, and (3) Impact of Sealevel Variation on the Asia-Pacific Region. The scientific aspects are discussed in Session 3. In this session the conveners wish to concentrate on "business" issues to promote APSG activities.

Special Session: Tutorial course for GPS beginners
Tuesday: Application of GPS interferometry to Earth sciences
Lecturers: Kosuke Heki (NAO; and Teruyuki Kato (Tokyo Univ.;
Wednesday: Accurate baseline estimates using GPS interferometry
Lecturer: Markus Rothacher (AIUB;
Thursday: Present status of GPS system and IGS
Lecturer: Ruth Neilan (JPL;

Abstract submission

Abstract should be submitted either by mail of a camera-ready copy (CRC), or by e-mail. On-line submission through home page is not available. The abstract must include the title of the paper, the author(s), affiliation(s), postal and e-mail address(es). The name of the author who presents the paper should be in capital letters. In addition to the abstract, session number and its name, preferred form of presentation (oral or poster), the name of contact person and his/her address should be provided. This additional information should be written on a separate sheet if regular mail is used, while those who use e-mail are requested to include this additional information right after the text of the abstract.
Those who use a CRC submission are requested to observe the following instructions for the abstract preparation;

  1. Paper size: A4 (210mm x 297mm) or US letter size (8 1/2" x 11")
  2. Headings: Title in capitals, author(s) name(s), affiliation(s), postal and e-mail address(es) to be centered on page
  3. Typing area: 12 pitches single or 1.5 line spaced in 154mm x 225mm (or 6" x 8 7/8"), with margins of 28mm (1 1/4") at the left, and 25mm(1") at the top of the paper ... Changed
  4. Length limit: One page. Those who submit the abstract by e-mail are to first ensure that the text fits onto one page before the submission.
  5. No figures are allowed in the abstract.
  6. Language: English
Authors are requested to send their abstract with the additional information

Before May 31, 1999

to the following address of the Secretariat of the Local Organizing Committee:

List of Submitted Abstracts

Papers presented at the symposium are requested to be submitted to two special volumes of the journal, Earth, Planets and Space, a refereed journal published by the Japanese Societies for Earth and Planetary Sciences. The language is English. The special volumes will take the place of the symposium proceedings. Further information concerning printed paper submission will be provided at a later date.

Travel support
The Local Organizing Committee is attempting to locate additional sources of travel funds for worthy participants. However, at the present time, (full or partial) travel support will be provided only to invited speakers as well as conveners. In the event that additional fund become available, participants who make presentations and need travel support are requested to write a letter to LOC secretary in addition to abstract submission. The letter should include age, title of abstract, statement of special hardships etc. The LOC will decide on the recipients for such funds soon after the abstract deadline.

Registration and Hotel Accommodations;

Advance Registration and Official Travel Agency
Participants are requested to fill out the enclosed Application forms (
form1 and form2) and return them together with the remittance to Kinki Nippon Tourist Co., Ltd. (KNT), the official travel agency for the conference. KNT also will handle travel arrangements including hotel reservations. Inquiries and applications in this regard should be addressed to :

GPS 99 Desk
Tokyo Sales Office,
Kinki Nippon Tourist Co., Ltd.
Tokyo Kotsukaikan 10F, 2-10-1, Yuraku-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-0006, JAPAN
Tel: +81-3-3214-5566
Fax: +81-3-3214-6688

In Japanese:
〒100-0006 東京都千代田区有楽町2-10-1
GPS 99 デスク

Registration Fees

Before June 30 ,1999

After July 1 ,1999


25,000 yen

30,000 yen


10,000 yen

15,000 yen

Accompanying Person

10,000 yen

10,000 yen

Banquet (October 21)

5,000 yen

5,000 yen

* Participants and Student :Registration fee includes Icebreaker Reception, Symposium, Proceedings, Coffee break and Scientific tours.
* Accompanying persons: Registration fee includes Icebreaker Reception, Symposium, Coffee break and Scientific tours.

Hotel Accommodations;
Rooms have been reserved at hotels around Tsukuba International Convention Center by KNT. For room reservation, you are kindly requested to forward the completed Application Form (form1 and form2) directly to KNT by August 16, 1999
Reservation should be accompanied by the remittance of a hotel deposit. No reservation will be confirmed in the absence of the remittance.
Hotel reservations are processed on the first-come first-served basis. If all available rooms in your selected hotel are fully booked, you will be assigned a room in a hotel as close as possible to your choice. You will be informed of your hotel name, exact room charge by KNT's confirmation slip after the deadline of the application.


Name of Hotels




Access to Conference site


Tsukuba Daiichi Hotel Epochal

10,000 yen

18,000 yen

10,000 yen

Adjacent to the site


Tsukuba Daiichi Hotel

10,000 yen

18,000 yen

10,000 yen

8 min. walk


Hotel Sun Route Tsukuba

7,100 yen

12,800 yen

7,000 yen

5 min. by taxi


Hotel Grand Shinonome

7,000 yen

12,000 yen

7,000 yen

10 min. walk


Hotel Suwa

7,000 yen

12,000 yen

7,000 yen

10 min. by taxi


Gakuen Sakurai Hotel

6,550 yen

11,400 yen

6,000 yen

6 min. walk


Tsukuba Sky Hotel

6,200 yen

11,000 yen

6,000 yen

5 min. by taxi


Tsukuba Daily-Inn

6,100 yen

11,000 yen

6,000 yen

15 min. walk

Tsukuba International Convention Center is 8 minutes away from Tsukuba Center Bus Terminal.
*4 : The rate include tax.
1) The above rates do not include taxes or breakfast. Please note that these rates are subject to change.
2) The hotel deposit will be deducted from your bill. Please settle the balance when you check out the hotel.

Accompanying Person's Excursions
1) Tour of Ibaraki
Tuesday, October. 19 (9:00-17:30)
Tour fare: 15,500 yen
* Minimum number of participants: 15 persons

Tsukuba (Conference site) ----- Mt. Tsukuba (Shrine & ropeway ride) ----- Lunch ----- Kasama (Pottery Kiln) ----- Kasama-Inari shrine (Chrysanthemum show) ----- Tsukuba

2) Tour of Tokyo
Wednesday, October 20. (8:30-17:30)

Tour fare: 16,500 yen
* Minimum number of participants: 15 persons

Tsukuba (Conference site) -----(Express way)----- Sightseeing in Tokyo (Meiji Shrine -- Imperial Palace Plaza -- Japanese Lunch at Ginza -- Boat Cruise-- Asakusa Kannon Temple) -----(Express way)----- Tsukuba

Post Conference Tour
Tour of Nikko National Park
Saturday, October 23. (8:00-19:00 Disband in Tokyo)
Tour fare: 22,000 yen
* Minimum number of participants: 15 persons

Tsukuba (Conference site) -----(Express way)----- Nikko National Park (Irohazaka Hairpin Driveway -- Lunch at Lake Chuzenji -- Kegon Waterfall -- Toshogu shrine & Rinnoji Temple) -----(Express way)----- Tokyo (Kayabacho Pearl Hotel)
* Optional:
1 night stay at Kayabacho Pearl Hotel (Near *Tokyo City Air Terminal)
* Tokyo City Air Terminal = Bus terminal for Narita Airport
Single room: 9,000 yen Twin room: 8,000 yen x 2 persons
* The above rates are per person per night including breakfast, service

Payment of the registration fees and the hotel deposit should be made only in Japanese Yen by one of the following methods.

1) Credit Card (VISA, Master Card, American Express or Diners Club only.)
* Please fill out the necessary information with your signature in the credit card section of the reservation form and send the completed application form by air mail as your original signature is required.

2) Bank Transfer to
Bank: The Bank of Tokyo Mitsubishi, Asakusabashi branch
Account No: 0721607
Account Name: GPS99

(In Japanese)
東京三菱銀行 浅草橋支店
普通口座: 0721607 口座名 GPS99 (シ゛ーヒ゜ーエス ナインティナイン)

* Please attach a copy of the bank receipt to your application form.
* Please note that the bank charge for remittance must be born by the applicants.

3) Bank draft payable to GPS 99
(* Personal checks are NOT acceptable.)

Upon receiving your application form and remittance, the GPS99 Desk will send you the confirmation slip after the deadline of the application.
Please ensure to bring this confirmation slip with you when you register upon arrival at the conference site, and for check-in at the hotel.

Change or Cancellation
For change or cancellation of registration and hotel reservation, a written notification should be sent directly to KNT to avoid troubles. Cancellation charges are as follows:

Refunds will be made after deducting the bank and/or credit card service charges, and the cancellation penalties. If the payment is made by credit card, reimbursement will be made through the credit card company.

General Information

Passports and Visas
All persons entering Japan must have a valid passport. In addition, persons coming from certain countries must have a visa issued by a Japanese consul in their country. For details, please inquire at your nearest Japanese Embassy or Consulate.

Currency Exchange
Only Japanese yen are acceptable at stores and restaurants. You can exchange money at the airport, foreign exchange banks, and other authorized exchanges upon presentation of your passport. Recently, the exchange rate of the yen has been about 120 yen to the U.S dollar (as of February 1999).

Credit Cards and Traveler's Checks
Visa, Master Card, American Express and Diners Club are widely accepted at hotels, department stores, shops and restaurants. Traveler's checks are only accepted by leading banks and hotels in principal cities, and their use in Japan is not as common as in some other countries.

The conference will be held under the comfortable weather of autumn. The average temperature is around 23C in the day and 15C at night.

Most banks are available for foreign currency exchange transactions from 9:00 to 15:00 on weekdays.

Participants are advised to provide their own personal insurance as the local organizing Committee will assume no responsibility on behalf of participants for personal accidents, sickness, theft or property damage.

Electrical Appliances
Japan operates on 100-110 volts for electrical appliances. The frequency is 50 Hz in eastern Japan including Tokyo and Tsukuba.

There is no custom of tipping in Japan. Instead, at places such as restaurants, bars and hotels, a ten percent service charge usually is added to your bill.